Journalism - Facts & Directory

Journalists need to be able to find resources that can give them information they need in order to write a concise article. With every topic and every story there are facts that need to be told in order for readers to be able to gain knowledge of the overall issue. Well written articles are not only read but remembered and in conversation many people refer to information that they have obtained through an article. This is the reason why a journalist should use facts from legitimate resources in their written work. Many times a story is being told about a location such as a state, city or country and there are facts about the location that need to be stated in order to give a description of the location that is the topic of the story. In this type of work almanacs, maps, atlases and geopolitical resources are very useful. A journalist is able to obtain full color physical and political maps, statistics. These resources also give information on the population, climate, history, religion. All of this data can become extremely helpful.

There is also the library of congress which has studies on 91 countries. These studies gives descriptions and analyzes the social, economical and political aspects of each country. These studies are written by teams of social scientists. They also analyze the interrelationships of certain countries and how they integrate socially and economically. This information can be of great help when a journalist is writing an article or story on cultural differences and how the environment of each country influences it's people. The cultural differences tie into why some countries are able to relate to one another when others are not. The Getty thesaurus of geographic names is another resource that is helpful with geographical information. It will bring up records of the location that you are searching for. There are times when a journalist wants to be able to visualize a geographical location by being able to see the distance of it, what other locations is it near and any other information that can be useful. Google maps has a very powerful street mapping service that allows you to go almost anywhere with just a click of your mouse.

Map Info is a resource that has demographical information. All a person would have to do is type an address and Map Info will bring up information up to a 3 mile radius on the occupants of the location. It will give the occupants characteristics, their occupations and also number of people residing in that area. The national geologic map data base has information on geology, geochemistry, geophysics and earths resources. This can be helpful if the written work is based on environmental issues such as global warming. These scientific facts will be able to give a factual description about the topic being presented. Dictionaries and translators are very important resources to have. The dictionary can come in handy when a writer is looking for the right words and the right spelling of the words to use in their articles or stories. There are on line translators that are able to translate full pages of written work in foreign languages. All of the resources listed can be used as great tools in order to produce exceptional written work that others will read and appreciate.

Ethics & Standards of Journalism

Journalism ethics and standards include principles to address good practice for professional journalists. Historically and currently these principles are most widely known to journalists as their professional "code of ethics" or the "canons of journalism." The basic codes and canons commonly appear in statements drafted by both professional journalism associations and individual news organizations. The codes and canons evolved through observation of and response to past ethical lapses by journalists. Today, it is common for terms of employment to mandate adherence to such codes equally applicable to both staff and freelance journalists; journalists may face dismissal for ethical failures. Upholding professional standards also enhances the reputation of and trust in a news organization, which boosts the size of the audience it serves.

These codes of ethics assist journalists with ethical dilemmas they might come across in their careers. The written codes and standards may vary from organization to organization and from country to country but usually in the field of journalism there is some type of framework established on ethics. Reporting the truth is never libel, which makes accuracy and attribution very important. Private persons have privacy rights that must be balanced against the public interest in reporting information about them. Public figures have fewer privacy rights and publishers vigorously defend libel lawsuits filed against their reporters. One of the most important rules is to make sure your sources given information is reliable and true. You are responsible for what material you are reporting and the legitimacy of the information you are covering. Always question your sources information and dig deep in order to compare all the material that is available on the specific topic in question. Some sources have motives that may effect what they give you as material for your story and will make it difficult for you to report the truth.

When you obtain photography or video images for a report make sure not to distort the images in any way. An exception to the rule is to increase the clarity of the images. Make sure to focus on facts and details of the related story without making any personal comments or suggestions that might the feel of the story. This allows the reader to form his or her own opinions without being forced to take in your opinions and comments. Swaying the story in to the direction you want it to go defeats the purpose of proving factual information so that others may form opinions and sometimes give feedback. It is also important to use your career as a tool for the voiceless to be heard. Sources can be average people who have experienced events or are currently in difficult circumstances and looking for a way to be heard. Be their aid and not only will you be helping them but you are also putting together a story that others will be touched by and may even relate to.

History of Journalism

In the early times, forms of communication of news was limited to word of mouth or gossip. News was usually told by a person who saw an event and re-told the story to others. The accuracy of the stories depended on how far the news had spread from the original source. The news' accuracy started to fade the further the story spread out to others. One other way to find out news was to write and read letters, but that was helpful for only those who were literate. This changed when Gutenberg invented the printing machine back in 1456. Not long after pamphlets, books especially the Bible were being printed for the public to read. The first newspapers did not appear until the 17th century. Mercurius Gallobelgicus was the first periodical issued in 1592 semiannually and it was written in Latin. The periodical was distributed at local book fairs. The Oxford Gazette became the first regularly published newspaper in 1665.

In the British colonies printing was regulated by the Press Restriction Act which made it mandatory for all printed documents to have the writers names and places of publication to be included. Newspaper publishing finally moved outside of New England in 1719 with Andrew Bradford's American Weekly Mercury. During the time that Benjamin Franklin established himself in Philadelphia in1730, there were a few newsprints circulating through town. There was Andrew Bradford's American Weekly Mercury, Keimer's Universal Instructor in all Arts and Sciences and the Pennsylvania Gazette. Franklin decided to take over the Instructor and changed it to the Pennsylvania Gazette. Ben Franklin makes the Pennsylvania Gazette the best newspaper in the colonies, most pages, with the largest circulation, highest income from advertising, and the most literary column. By 1750 fourteen weekly newspapers were read in the six most populated colonies.

In 1800, America had more 200 newspapers, including 24 dailies. Unfortunately these publications were mostly mouthpieces for political parties instead of independent, objective entities. The Gazette of the United States, promoted the ideas of Alexander Hamilton and the other Federalists, and the National Gazette spoke for Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republicans. The centerpiece of a typical newspaper published between 1784 and 1830 was its political reporting, which often consisted of harsh, satirical, and sometimes false comments. "If ever a nation was debauched by a man," Aurora editor Benjamin Franklin Bache wrote of the country's first president, "the American nation has been debauched by Washington".

The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 punished some journalists for being bold in their reporting' s, but even early American reporters enjoyed the freedom that was promised by the First Amendment to the Constitution, which says that "Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press." The number of publications increased in these early decades of independence. In 1820 America had 512 newspapers. The nature of the press in America remained mostly the same until the 1830s. John Tebbel, author of The Compact History of the American Newspaper, explained: "From its use as a revolutionary propaganda machine to its hardly concealed official position as a private organ of a President, it had encompassed the range of partisan expression at the expense of truth and responsibility." In the 1830s came the most important development of American journalism when New York journalists James Gordon Bennett and Benjamin Day began grabbing the attention of mass audiences. Tebbel noted that immigration and improvements in printing technology, both started this new era, which came to be known as the age of the penny press. Different from contemporary papers, which sold for 6 cents, Day's New York Sun and Bennett's New York Herald at first sold for a penny and were peddled in the streets. In addition to the increased circulations, this period was memorable for the change in the content of newspapers. Bennett was a pioneer in broadening the scope and sharpening the appeal of newspaper reporting.

What is Yellow Journalism

Yellow journalism is a belittling force of reference to journalism that features scandal or other unethical or unprofessional practices by news media organizations or journalists. The term came from circulation battles between Joseph Pulitzers New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal from 1895 to about 1898, and can refer specifically to this period. Both papers were accused by critics of arousing strong interest in the news in order to drive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well. The New York Press originated the term "Yellow Journalism" in early 1897 to describe the papers of Pulitzer and Hearst. The newspaper did not define the term, and in 1898 simply effectuated, "We called them Yellow because they are Yellow."

Pulitzer and Hearst are responsible for drawing the nation into the Spanish-American War with elaborated stories that were not always told in truth. The majority of Americans did not live in New York City, and the decision makers who did live there more than likely relied more on more settled newspapers like the Times, The Sun or the Post. The best example of the exaggeration is the false story that artist Frederic Remington telegrammed Hearst to tell him that everything was calm and quiet in Cuba and "There will be no war." Hearst responded "Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." The story first appeared in the memoirs of reporter James Creelman in 1901, and there is no other source for it.

But Hearst was one who advocated war after a rebellion broke out in Cuba in 1895. Stories of Cuban virtue and Spanish brutality soon dominated his front page. While the accounts were of doubtful accuracy, the newspaper readers of the 19th century did not need, or necessarily want, his stories to be pure nonfiction. Historian Michael Robertson has said that "Newspaper reporters and readers of the 1890s were much less concerned with distinguishing among fact-based reporting, opinion and literature." Pulitzer's treatment in the World emphasizes horrible explosion Hearst's treatment was more effective and focused on the enemy who set the bomb and offered a huge reward to readers.

Pulitzer kept the story on his front page. The yellow press covered the revolution extensively and most often inaccurately, but conditions on Cuba were horrible enough. Journalism historians have said that yellow journalism was largely a topic to New York City, and that newspapers in the rest of the country were not doing the same as they were.. The Journal and the World were not among the top ten sources of news in regional papers, and the stories simply did not make a splash outside of Gotham. War came because public opinion was sickened by the bloodshed, and because conservative leaders like McKinley realized that Spain had lost control of Cuba. These factors weighed more on the president's mind than the melodramas in the New York Journal. Hearst sailed to Cuba, when the invasion started, as a war correspondent, providing accurate accounts of the fighting. Creelman later praised the work of the reporters for exposing the horrors of Spanish misrule, arguing, " no true history of the war can be written without an acknowledgment that whatever of justice and freedom and progress was accomplished by the Spanish-American war was due to the enterprise and tenacity of yellow journalists, many of whom lie in unremembered graves."

 

 

 


--The below resources have been provided by online community members.
We strongly urge you to visit them as they may be helpful resources to you:



  • You are not going to find better tasting Chinese food than at Chi Dynasty. In my view they offer the best tasting traditional Chinese food Glendale has to offer. Also, try their Chow Mein, you will love it.

  • We needed to find a 4 bedroom, 3 bath house in the Friendswood area of Texas and we were on a tight budget. That is why we hired Johnna Johnson who is the best Realtor Friendswood has to offer. She has been a Remax top producer for 12 years in a row. She found us our dream home, and came in below our budget!

  • This is the best social media marketing tool I know. Anyone who does social media SEO must have this awesome tool in their arsenal. It is awesome!

  • There are lots of fantastic Fremont CA Realtors, but none that I found are as helpful as Joseph Sabeh. I strongly recommend him to anyone that is relocating to the Fremont area.

  • The other day my cousin and her husband read a copperas cove home value report and now they are considering moving to this area. This copperas cove home value report showed them that this is a great place to settle in and raise a family. They recommend the team at Century 21 and they plan to see a Military Relocation Specialist.

  • The best custom rugs store in Los Angeles is Melrose Carpet. They did such an amazing job with our condo. I was so impressed.

  • Style Taxi is the only taxi company that I trust with all of my pick up and drop off Atlanta airport transportation needs. They have clean black cars, with professional drivers, and their cars always smell great.

  • Since I like to take good care of my teeth, I recommend seeing the outstanding team at cosmetic dentistry clayton ca for the teeth whitening procedure. In my humble opinion the staff at cosmetic dentistry clayton ca is one of the best. I endorse this professional dentist antioch ca because they know how to take good care of their patients.

  • Several weeks ago our medical firm hired some flex printed circuits and now they are creating some excellent flex circuit boards and flex circuit connectors. We asked around and we were told that these flex manufacturers always do first class work. We endorse these flexible circuit manufacturers to other companies.

  • Several weeks ago our medical firm hired some printed flex circuits and now they are creating some excellent flex circuit boards and flex circuit connectors. We asked around and we were told that these flex manufacturers always do first class work. We endorse these flexible circuit manufacturers to other companies.

  • One of the finest surgery centers for plastic surgery Santa Barbara has to offer is at Roger Kohn's medical surgical office in Santa Barbara.

  • One of my sons is a manager at an outstanding herbal vitamin manufacturer. He told me that in his humble opinion this herbal vitamin manufacturer is one of the best. He would also endorse an excellent sports vitamin private label as well as some private label vitamins and a professional herbal manufacturer. He said that this firm processes vitamins every day.

  • One of my sisters wants to look good so she made an appointment to see the professional team at botox Salt Lake City. My sister asked around and she was told that the team at boxtox Salt Lake City is outstanding. She also endorses the crew at utah face lift and cosmetic fillers Salt Lake City. These plastic surgeons are highly skilled and they have years of experience.

  • One of my sisters is a teacher and she was telling me about an excellent direct instruction reading program that she has started using. She said that her students really respond to this outstanding direct instruction reading. She also likes to use a direct instruction language program as well as a direct instruction lesson plan. My sister recommends these programs.

  • One of my sisters has a really attractive tan and she told me that she visits some excellent tulsa tanning salons on a regular basis. My sister did some careful research and she found that the crew at these tulsa tanning salons are professionally trained. She would also recommend the team at tulsa sunless tanning.

  • One of my nieces is a strong believer in natural health care so she recommends an excellent holistic doctor san diego. She told me that in her humble opinion this holistic doctor san diego is one of the best. She also endorses a naturopathic doctor san diego as well as the medical staff at bioidentical hormones san diego.

  • One of my friends called the other day and he told me about a great search engine for sosbuzz. I asked around and I found that at sosbuzz.com you can do a pay after confirmed sale transaction. I would recommend reading an sosbuzz review that talks about how you can write free ads and you will find this to be a tremendous way to market your products and services.

  • One of my friends called me and he asked me to go to the outstanding team at los altos bail bonds. My friend was arrested and he said that the professional crew at los altos bail bonds was helping him. My friend also endorses using hayward bail bonds and bail bonds hayward as well as bail bonds san francisco and san francisco bail bonds.

  • One of my brother is a manager at an industrial firm and he told me that he recently ordered some top of the line enclosed track conveyors. My brother took the time to do research and he was pleased to find out that these enclosed track conveyors are one of the best. He said that this firm as a well deserve reputation for excellence and they also make some excellent overhead conveyor systems as well as some professional paintline inverted monorail conveyors. My brother said that he would highly recommend these industrial products. He said that in his humble opinion these industrial products are one of the best in the field.

  • My sister sent me an email recently about the excellent team at kitchen refacing long island. Since I want a nice kitchen, I plan to contact the outstanding staff at kitchen refacing long island. These discount kitchens long island look great and I would also endorse some attractive kitchen counter tops long island and kitchen countertops long island.

  • My boss asked me to find an American manufacturer that can build top of the line heavy duty conveyors for our plant. I hired Rhodes Conveyors. They did an amazing job.

  • Last week my friend hit a pothole and now he wants to get some new hubcaps for his car. He went on the web and he was pleased to find a site that offers a wide variety of excellent hubcaps. He also said that they offer some outstanding wheelcovers as well as some wheel covers. He said that he would be happy to recommend this site to others. I posted about hubcapsonwheels,com on my Facebook and Twitter pages, because I love their center caps too!

  • Last week I did some research on the web and I was pleased to find a company that issues some excellent mobile hard drive shredders. Given that I am the manager of a company, we want to remove our documents and media safely. I would recommend these hard drive shredders. This hard disk shredder is quiet.

  • Last month at youth group our leader played some wonderful armenian christian music and I was really blown away. The leader told me about a website where you can listen to this armenian christian music. He also recommends some christian armenian songs as well as some contemporary Christian hymns.

  • Last Monday night I was reading an article in a manufacturing journal about some excellent assembly line conveyors. Since I am the supervisor of a manufacturing plant, I would strongly endorse using these production assembly conveyors as well as some reliable surface mounted assembly conveyors.

  • In my view the top veterinary ophthalmic EMR company is Pack Leader DVM. I say that because we ended up hiring them after interviewing several other companies. They did an amazing job for us.

  • In my opinion the best ad agency Florida has to offer is Dunn and Company, Troy Dunn's advertising agency located in Tampa FL.

  • If you want the lasted information on Cooperstown baseball tournaments go to the only I site I know that has updated info on Cooperstown baseball tournaments cooperstownbaseballworld.com.

  • If you want the best service for bouncy house rental in particularly in the Phoenix or Scottsdale areas, I strongly recommend going to through AZPartyZone.com; they are the best.

  • If you want good values on Fort Hood real estate, then talk to Robert Herrings Jr from Century 21. He has been a real estate broker for 30 years, and in all that time he has lived in Fort Hood, so he knows the area inside out.

  • If you want a truly knowledgeable and caring insurance broker to handle all your insurance needs, particularly your life insurance, then go see Paul Arakelyan. You will love this guy. He is honest and like an encyclopedia of insurance. In my view, he has the best service for life insurance Los Angeles has to offer.

  • If you want a dependable and trustworthy corrugated box manufacturer LA area, go to corrbox.com and they will take care of you.

  • If you want portable mobile clean rooms for your plant, I recommend you go through the best manufacturers I know; RSI. They are the best!

  • If you need a professional plumber in the San Fernando Valley that charges low prices and has 24/7 emergency hotline available, then check out Rooter Master.

  • If you get bitten and it starts to swell up, it is probably a brown recluse spider bite and you need to treat it immediately. That is why I recommend the brown recluse first aid kit from brown-recluse.com.

  • If you are looking to rent a fast sports car, check out exotiquerental.com. They list their prices and availability directly on their site. I have used other rental places before, but they are the best shop for sports car rental Los Angeles has to offer.

  • I was so impressed with the well built computer carts on wheels manufactured by CompuCaddy. They did an amazing job in building these computer carts. They are our portable computer workstations and we love them!

  • I was so impressed with the new litter of English golden retrievers for sale listed on deercreekgoldens.com. That is the precise way of how a champion breed should look.

  • I was doing lots of research on AKC registered French bulldogs for sale and there were literally two breeders that actually looked reputable, and had decent reviews. The two breeders were World of Frenchies and Love our Frenchies. I ended up getting my pups from World of Frenchies as I wanted a chocolate and lilac coat pups, and their current litter had both.

  • I wanted to find the best homes for lease Killeen had to offer, but for the shortest lease terms possible. Most real estate agents said what I wanted wasn't doable, but Robert Herrings Jr. used his connections to get me exactly what I wanted in a house rental. Thank you Robert for helping me.

  • I reviewed several of the top college prep high schools in CA, and the best one was by far Magnolia Charter High Schools. They offer top notch teachers, and their STEM program is exactly what my math genius son needed.

  • I had heard about the an excellent specialty act that was performed by the group who does Street Beats knows as Industrial Rhythm, but i had never considered that their break dancing and stomp entertainment would make the best trade show entertainment for our guests. After hiring them I was so happy with all the positive review. I highly recommend Industrial Rhythm to anyone that wants to hire the very best in trade show entertainment for their business meetings.

  • I found the most dependable flaring machine at the lowest prices from a company called APS Metals. I strongly recommend APS Metals to anyone that wants amazing flaring machines.

  • I found the cutest australian labradoodle puppies for sale at the Sun Valley Labradoodles website. They are a well established and trustworthy Australian Labradoodle breeder out of Canada. They have 6 acres of land where they raise these incredibly cute medium sized Australian Labradoodle puppies that comes in all sorts of colors, like red, black and apricot. I strongly recommend Sun Valley Labradoodles to anyone that needs a trustworthy Australian Labradoodle breeder to buy puppies from.

  • I found that all the psychologists NYC has to offer are about the same, except for one that stands out head and shoulders above the rest, and that is Dr. Christine Fernandez, PhD. She is a truly caring individual that does self esteem therapy, as well as depression counseling in the New York City area. I strongly recommend Dr. Christine Fernandez to whoever wants to work with a licensed therapist that cares.

  • I finally found a compounding pharmacy that stays open late, and has caring pharmacists working there. It's called Medico Pharmacy - check them out. In my experience, they are the top pharmacy West Los Angeles has to offer.

  • I did some digging around online, and I found a company out in Kentucky that specializes in custom floor conveyors. They have an amazing engineering team too. Check them out if your plant needs any sort of custom conveyor systems.

  • I asked my next door neighbor where she got her adorable French bulldog puppies, and she said she got them from a champion line breeder of French bulldog puppies in Atlanta by the name of Love Our Frenchies. She told me to check them out at LoveourFrenchies.com. So I did, and I was so impressed. I learned a lot about French bulldogs on that site. If you want awesome French bulldog puppies for sale, check out Love Our Frenchies.

  • I asked my neighbor who lives in Beverly Hills and had her husband checked in to an upscale sober living home, if she still remembered what the name of that home was, and she immediately said Miracle Terrace and gave me their site of miracleterrace.com. She said they are the most caring and upscale Beverly Hills sober living home for anyone who has completed a treatment recovery program.

  • I asked my best friend who is a patent attorney if she can recommend the best divorce attorney cranberry township has to offer, and without blinking an eye she emailed me the link to GVLawOffice.com.

  • I asked my best friend if she can refer the top realtors in Fort Hood to me, and she said in her view the best realtor in Fort Hood is Bonnie Herrings of FtHoodProperties.com. After speaking with Bonnie, I can see why she felt Bonnie is the best.

  • Given that my wife is the secretary for our pastor, she recommends using an outstanding toronto flower delivery firm. She told me that when someone in the church is sick, she contacts this toronto flower delivery firm and they bring a beautiful arrangement to the family. My wife also recommends a funeral florist in mississuaga as well as an excellent weddding florist in toronto.

  • Given that I want to track how many people come to my website, I was pleased to find a site online that offers some excellent free counters. I did some research and I found out that these free counters are one of the best. I would also recommend some free hit counters as well as some hit counters and some web counters. These are great tools to measure your web traffic.

  • Given that I care about my appearance, I would recommend going to an outstanding studio center barber. I did some research and in my humble opinion this studio city barber is one of the best in his field. I would also recommend visiting a studio city barbershop as well as getting a studio city hair cut. If you are looking for a nice hair cut, this is the place to go.

  • For those in Phoenix that need to take care of party rentals, like chairs, popcorn machines, snow cone machines and of course bounce houses, I strongly recommend AZ Party Zone. They have the best prices for those who need to rent chairs Phoenix has to offer!

  • After taking my car for body work to several shops, I finally found one that does great work at affordable prices. They are called Exotic Automobile Center. In my view, they are the best body shop Santa Monica has to offer.

  • After taking my car for body work to several shops, I finally found one that does great work at affordable prices. They are called Exotic Automobile Center. In my view, they are the best auto body repair has to offer.

  • A few months ago my cousin went in for some scrotal support treatment. He told me that they fitted him for a wonderful scrotal support that feels comfortable. My cousin had some testicle soreness as well as an epididymitis swollen testicle so he was fitted for this scrotal support. Now he is more active and he is feeling much better.

  • A few months ago I was laid off with several others from our sales department. I took the time to do some research and I was pleased to locate a site online that offers some outstanding contract sales jobs. I did some asking around and I was told that these contract sales jobs offer an excellent sales opportunity.